Public Health England (PHE) has provided guidance to explain the mobile network technology with health, protection and monitoring exposures.
The mobile communications technology has evolved through many generations (G) with 2G, 3G and 4G base stations installed to provide services to users of mobile phones and devices - 5G is the next generation. To connect the users of mobile devices to mobile communication networks, requires base stations to transmit and receive the radio waves, which are significantly reduced in strength from the base station antennas due to the distance.
The base stations are stationary with radio transmitters and antennas placed onto the masts or buildings. The larger base stations can be up to several kilometers apart with the antennas placed at an appropriate level to allow clear access. For smaller base stations, the antennas are mounted closer to the ground, for example, in cities and towns to enable additional radio capacity for the high volume of users.
The radio waves transmitted from the base stations are a form of non-ionising radiation and have frequencies in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The exposure of radio waves has been extensively researched over many decades and concerns have been addressed worldwide. There are also several legislations and planning policies to control exposure, which follow international guidelines.
Public Health England continues to monitor evidence and is committed to updating its guidance.